USM, Nibong Tebal, Penang
Address: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang
Deterioration of concrete bridges and other concrete structures caused by environmental exposure is a severe global problem. Serious deterioration of the civil engineering infrastructure has encouraged structural monitoring of the integrity of structural systems. Early detection of damage is of special concern for civil engineering structures. If not identified in time, damage may have serious consequences, both safety related and economic.